In 1983 Toyota hired John Shook to head up its joint venture with General Motors, to be based in California. GM wanted to wanted to put an idle plant and work force back on line. Toyota faced pressure to produce vehicles in the United States. It was already trailing Honda Motor Co. Ltd. and Nissan Motor Co., which were by then building cars in Ohio and Tennessee, respectively. This is the story of how the NUMMI agreement changed GM’s Fremont, California, plant into a model manufacturing plant with the very same workers.